Advanced Professional Development Course
IPC Program On Signal and Power Integrity for a PCB
presented by Mr. S L N Murthy
11 October 2019 | 9.30 AM - 5.30 PM | Pai Viceroy, Jayanagar, Bengaluru
• Importance of signal integrity and power integrity in current day scenario. Importance
of signal parameters, Frequency and Time domain signal representations, harmonics, signal
bandwidth. Signal rise time and harmonic content, Impact of harmonics and signal path on
signal rise time, Critical frequency and band width. Requirements of Signal integrity-based designs.
• Signal propagation path, Propagation velocity and delay, Signal propagation and flight time, Critical
length of signals, Critical lengths based on logic families. Definition of Noise Margin, Definition
of Noise budget for a design, Critical lengths of logic families.
• Characteristics of a signal path, Signal path disturbances, board and system level signal topologies
and the various discontinuities thereon. Key objectives of a SI design process.
Transmission Line Theory:
• Introduction to transmission line theory, Propagation mode along transmission lines, Transmission line
modelling, lossless and lossy transmission lines, Transmission line impedance. General aspects of
transmission lines, Ideal transmission lines.
• Impact of impedance discontinuities on reflections, Reflection on transmission lines. Definition of
reflection Coefficient, Special cases for reflection coefficient values. Termination Techniques and
their role in containing impact of reflections on a transmission line.
• Signal return paths, Importance of signal return paths, Return path discontinuities and its impact on signal quality.
Characteristic Impedance, PCB Layer Build Design:
• Definition of characteristic impedance, Need for impedance control, Why a characteristic impedance of 50Ω?
• PCB impedance structures and parameters influencing the impedance of a signal path, PCB material characteristics,
Designing of PCB layer builds, Importance of signal layer distribution and positioning of signal return path planes.
Crosstalk and SSN or Ground Bounce Aspects:
• Crosstalk and its genesis, Inductive and Capacitive crosstalk, Mutual inductance and capacitance, Crosstalk induced
noise, NEXT and FEXT, Parameters and their influence on NEXT and FEXT. Controlling crosstalk, Impact of return path on crosstalk.
• Ground bounce and its contributors, Impact of Ground bounce and its impact on noise margins, Package parasitic and their
influence on Ground Bounce, Minimizing Ground bounce.
• What is Differential signalling, Requirements for differential signalling, Advantages of differential signalling,
Differential signalling parameters and their influence on signal propagation. Impact of skew in Differential Signalling
and some basic ground rules for signal routing for differential signalling.
• Some examples of differential signalling technology.
Overview of Modelling for Signal Integrity Analysis:
• IBIS modelling, genesis of IBIS modelling and chronology of versions. Overview of key attributes in IBIS version release.
• Modelling of passive interconnect structures - S parameter models and connector modelling.
Introduction to EMI and EMC:
• Definitions of EMI and EMC, Types of electromagnetic interference, EMC standards and their relevance, Typical EMI scenario,
Layer stack design for good EMC Signal paths and their influence on EMI.
• Guidelines for low EMI, Impact of SI on EMC, Planes and intrinsic impedance, Differential signalling and EMI.
Some design guidelines for minimizing radiated EMI.
GHz Signalling Technology:
• Serial and Parallel data transfer technologies and their basic overview, Issues of these data transfer technologies,
Industry standard data technologies.
• Signal degradation and their contributors. EYE diagram – why and its importance.
• Signal path losses at high frequency in transmission lines. DC resistance and conductance of transmission lines,
Skin effect and what causes the same, High frequency representation of series resistance of a transmission line,
Proximity effect of conductors, Proximity factor.
• Understanding ISI, Jitter, High frequency losses - Skin effect, signal pre-emphasis, Impact of material and
trace geometry on losses. HDI technology and how it impacts GHz signalling.
• Electrical properties of dielectrics, fibre weave effect, Environmental effects on transmission line,
Transmission line parameters for lossy dielectrics.
• Surface roughness of conductors and its impact on high frequency signal transmission, Roughness of PCB materials,
Dielectric material properties and its variance at higher operating frequencies, Dielectric loss tangent.
Industry standard GHz Signalling Technologies:
• PCIE Standards, SATA Technology, HDMI Technology, Ethernet Technology and USB Technology design requirements.
• A look at DDR3 and DDR4 technologies. Understanding their Design requirements.
• Importance of Power Integrity. How it has becoming critical in current day scenario. Designer’s expectations
and impact of poor power delivery in high speed designs.
• Understanding the two-dimensional Power delivery network in a PCB. increasing speed and system density,
power integrity (PI) issues.
• Understand the requirements of a PDN and importance of PI analysis – DC and AC analysis and AC analysis.
What is Target impedance of a PDN?
• Characteristics of PDS components - Planes-L, C, R, resonances. Structure of decoupling capacitors and
their key parameters. How to arrive at the choice of capacitors, PCB stack build for PI.
• DC Analysis - Study the DC voltage distribution along the planes and review any constrictions that
results in a voltage drop and correct the same.
• AC Analysis – Study impact of capacitor characteristic and their mounting on the resonance of the planes.
Deriving the number of capacitors required for a good PDN performance.
• Power Integrity and Thermal Co-Simulation.